Perhaps not everyone knows that the famous white stone, awarding Russia the epithet "white stone", which served as material for construction and manufacture of ornaments of many palaces and temples, to pass the test for centuries – is an ancient natural material limestone. This widespread rock originated on Earth millions of years ago at the bottom of ancient seas in marine sediments and occupies more than 10% of the sediment cover on our planet. Limestone is composed almost entirely of calcite, and has a unique internal structure: the volume of internal pores reaches 20-30% of the stone, making the mineral "breathe". This explains the high frost resistance of white stone, and hence its longevity. Film weathering, which eventually covered with material that prevents further chemical destruction of the stone.
The hardness of calcite crystals attached limestone high strength and fineness and the presence of pores makes it one of the most convenient material handling. The latter property is largely determined the role of white stone in the architecture of many countries, including the ancient Russia. Extraction and processing limestone mining limestone is fairly simple – way to breaking. It was named so because the top layer of rock raised crowbars and smashed the hammer blows of the iron wedges. Small pieces of stone were dragged hand, for larger applied gate type device, which is driven by a ten to twenty workers. Sawing stone blocks was carried out manually by a simple iron saw. While working at a place sawing added sand (as an abrasive) and water, making stone softer and more pliable.